Case Studies 4:
This monograph presents case studies on failure investigations in structural and geotechnical engineering in three sections: building collapses, bridge collapses, and structural failures leading to the loss of serviceability of the structure (failures without collapse). This bulletin is the result of the work lead by the Task Group 5.1 (TG5.1) ‘Forensic Structural Engineering’ as part of Commission 5 ‘Existing Structures’ of IABSE. The work of TG5.1 is not limited to any building material or type of structure and focuses on the exchange of knowledge on causes (technical, human, and/or organizational) of structural failures and on forensic investigation methods and techniques. These case studies are selected from a wide range of reported and investigated structural failures. While this is an ‘incomplete’ set of case studies, the selection has been made based on well documented structural failures, either from direct contact to forensic engineering experts who worked in the technical investigation process, or from highly detailed investigation material that has been summarized by the relevant chapter author(s). As a result, this bulletin covers a wide range of causes, technical and legal investigation processes, and finally highlights the lessons learnt for each of the described structural failures. The aim of the bulletin is not only to describe case studies but, mainly, to use emblematic case studies to show procedures that can be used when dealing with structural failures. In addition to obtaining a deeper insight into the technical causes for structural failure, the reader would be duly informed about the different countries’ legal issues related to the investigation process.
Case Studies 3:
Investigation for the Chirajara Bridge Collapse (Webinar discussion with Author)
163 pages, in English. ISBN: 978-3-85748-185-7 (print). 163 pages, in English.
On January 15, 2018, at 11:49, the west pylon (B) of the cable-stayed Chirajara Bridge collapsed during the construction of the bridge girder. The crossing is located approximately 20 km NW of Villavicencio, Colombia. The collapse led to the complete destruction of Pylon B, together with the erected span of the bridge girder. Authorities reported nine fatalities resulting from the collapse. Shortly after, the project insurer QBE Segures (Colombia) commissioned an independent investigation into the collapse of the bridge, through loss adjusters ONC Adjusters (Bogotá, Colombia). An international team of bridge engineering experts was assembled to undertake the investigation, with Professor Christos T. Georgakis of Brincker & Georgakis, Denmark as chair of the team. The other members of the team were Sven Eilif Svensson of ES-Consult; Klaus H. Ostenfeld of KHO-Consult in Denmark, Siegfried Hopf of Leonhardt, Andrä und Partner in Germany and Professor Yozo Fujino of Yokohama National University in Japan.
On May 30, 2018, the team issued a brief interim report on the causes of the collapse of Pylon B. Demolition of the standing east pylon (C) was recommended in the brief interim report, as it was nearly identical to Pylon B and subject to the same deficiencies as identified for Pylon B in this report. The expert team was informed that the demolition of Pylon C and the remaining parts of the superstructure was carried out on July 11, 2018.
On August 4, 2018, an extended interim report was issued, elaborating the findings presented in the brief interim report concerning the detailed failure mechanism of Pylon B. In addition, the extended interim report presented a general assessment of the overall bridge design and the corresponding design flaws throughout the bridge, as well as a brief geotechnical assessment.
All findings of the Brief Interim Report of May 30, 2018, and the extended Interim Report of August 4, 2018, are presented and expanded upon in this book. The final findings of the team on the detailed investigation into the failure mechanism of Pylon B are reported in addition to a general assessment of the bridge design, the materials used for construction, and geotechnical aspects, as well as the observations made during site visits and interviews with all relevant parties. Appropriate degrees of structural robustness, redundancy, and ductility should always be ensured. In this case study, the findings of the detailed investigation into the failure mechanism of the bridge are reported. In addition, selected drawings used for construction, geotechnical aspects, and deficiencies in the bridge design are presented, together with observations made during site visits and interviews with relevant parties.
Authored by Dr. Christos T. Georgakis; Dr. Yozo Fujino; Siegfried Hopf; Klaus H. Ostenfeld; and Dr. S. Eilif Svensson; the Chief Reviewer for this Bulletin was the Vice Chair of IABSE Bulletin Board, Dr. Fabrizio Palimisano and Reviewers were members of the IABSE Task Group 5.1 Forensic Engineering, John Duntemann, and Laurent Rus.
ISBN: 978-3-85748-185-7 (print). eISBN: 978-3-85748-186-4 (PDF), 978-3-85748-187-1 (ePUB). DOI: https://doi.org/10.2749/cs003. 170 x 240 mm. Published: November, 2022. Available at: https://www.iabse.org/Case-Studies-Hardcopy. PDF/ePub: 78 EUR. Print (softcover): 90 EUR. *prices excl. shipping cost. ** ePDF is included with IABSE Members. Available to download for FREE at the Members Area.
Case Studies 2
Case Studies on Conservation and Seismic Strengthening/Retrofitting of Existing Structures, by Andreas Lampropoulos (Video)
ISBN 978-3-85748-173-4. Format: 170 x 240 mm. Published: January 2020. 224 Pgs.
Recent earthquakes have demonstrated that despite the continuous developments of novel materials and new strengthening techniques, the majority of the existing structures are still unprotected and at high seismic risk. The repair and strengthening framework is a complex process and there are often barriers in the preventative upgrade of the existing structures related to the cost of the applications and the limited expertise of the engineers. The engineers need to consider various options thoroughly and the selection of the appropriate strategy is a crucial parameter for the success of these applications. The main aim of this collection is to present a number of different approaches applied to a wide range of structures with different characteristics and demands acting as a practical guide for the main repair and strengthening approaches used worldwide. This document contains a collection of nine case studies from six different countries with different seismicity (i.e. Austria, Greece, Italy, Mexico, Nepal and New Zealand). Various types of structures have been selected with different structural peculiarities such as buildings used for different purposes (i.e. school buildings, town hall, 30 storey office tower), a bridge, and a wharf. Most of the examined structures are Reinforced Concrete structures while there is also an application on a Masonry building. For each of the examined studies, the local conditions are described followed by the main deficiencies which are addressed. The methods used for the assessment of the in-situ conditions also presented and alternative strategies for the repair and strengthening are considered.
Andreas Lampropoulos (Editor), University of Brighton, UK; Christos Giarlelis, Equidas Consulting Engineers, Greece, Hamish McKenzie; Holmes Consulting, New Zealand, Evlalia Lamprinou, Equidas Consulting Engineers, Greece; Rob Presland, Holmes Consulting, New Zealand; Constantinos Repapis, University of West Attica, Greece; Alistair Boyce, WSP-Opus, New Zealand; Stephanos Dritsos, University of Patras, Greece; Engliang Chin Tonkin and Taylor, New Zealand; Dimitrios Baros, University of Patras, Greece; Gareth Morris, Holmes Consulting, New Zealand; Rakesh Dumaru, University of Porto, Portugal; Mark Browne, Holmes Consulting, New Zealand; Hugo Rodrigues, ESTG - Polytechnic Institute of Leiria, Portugal; Kirsti Murahidy, Tonkin and Taylor, New Zealand; Humberto Varum, University of Porto, Portugal; Mike Jacka, Tonkin and Taylor, New Zealand; Enzo Martinelli, Univ. degli Studi di Salerno, Italy; Dimitrios Stefanoudakis, Civil Engineer, Austria; Ciro Faella, Univ. degli Studi di Salerno, Italy; Eftychia Apostolidi, Univ. of Natural Res. & Life Sciences, Austria; Emidio Nigro, Univ. degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy; José Jara, Univ. Michoacana de San Nicolás, México; Carmine Lima, Univ. degli Studi di Salerno, Italy; Bertha Olmos, Univ. Michoacana de San Nicolás, México; Joe White, Holmes Consulting, Netherlands; Guillermo Martínez, Univ. Michoacana de San Nicolás, México.